N2 Grammar Notes


Because I'm about to take the jlpt n2 exam, I'm posting some notes for pre-exam review.#
Originally, question 8 was a sorting question, and you had to select four options. I always thought it was a multiple-choice question 😱😱#
Read the sentence and pay attention to whether it is positive or negative.#
  1. けば: The potential form of "書く" means "to write".
  1. 書いてでも: "~ てでも" means "even if it costs a lot" or "even if it takes extreme effort", in this case, it means "to write...".
  2. 書くだけは: means "everything that can be written".
  3. 書いたわりに: "わりに" means "in contrast to" or "contrary to".

"けば" potential form
"~ てでも" means "even if"
"だけは" means "everything that can be"
"わりに" means "in contrast to"

  1. うちなら: if it's at home.
  1. うちでも: even if it's at home.

でも: even if
なら: if

"伺う"is a humble form of" 行く / 来る / 聞く ",
"いらっしゃる"is a honorific form of" 行く / 来る / いる ".

"に違いない" means "certainly" or "definitely".

1. なければならない: must.
Same as "ないといけない".

  1. ない でも ない: it's not that you can't.
  2. わけ では ない: it's not that.
  3. こと は ない: there's no need.

"たくなる" means "to become inclined to want to".
"みたいだ" means "seems like".
"はず" means "supposed to".

"ことがある" means "there is a certain situation".
"ことにしている" means "subjectively insist on doing something".

"~ だろう" means "probably".
"~ とのこと" means "I heard that".

"このような" means "like this".
"ある" means "a certain".

"するために" means "for the purpose of".

  1. しても: even if..., also...
  2. なったように: as if it became...

「させる」 means "to make" or "to let".

まれ: rare

  1. : if..., followed by habitual action. The preceding part is N.
  1. なら: if..., followed by suggestion or proposal.
  2. けど: although..., but. It indicates a contrast.
  3. のに: although..., but. It indicates a contrast.

どころか: let alone. It means that the latter is not true or even the opposite. In kanji, it is written as "どころか、ひらがなも書けない".

かというと: as for whether~, followed by a negative deduction.
にしては: although it is.
だから といって: although it is said, it is not right to do the latter.

たびに: every time

てあげる: to do something for someone.
てくれる: someone does something for us.

  1. だったようね: it seems like it was on that day.
  1. だっけ~: I think it was. っけ is used to confirm something that is not clear in memory or that you know but have forgotten.
  2. じゃなかったの: wasn't it on that day? It indicates negation.
  3. なんじゃないか: isn't it on that day? It indicates a gentle assertion.

できずにいる: unable to do, cannot do
でき: to do, : not, にいる: exist

"たところ" means just finished doing~

  1. つまり: in other words
  1. しかも: moreover
  2. ところが: however
  3. というのは: that is to say

ては いかが でしょうか: How about? It expresses a polite invitation.

きり: "noun + きり" means only, just.
じゅう: before a word indicating a place, it means whole, all.
ぐらい: after a numeral, it means about ~.
だらけ: full of. It is attached to a noun to indicate that something is full of that thing, usually used in a negative sense.

"から" means because.

どころか: let alone
ところが: however
としても: even if
どしても: no matter what

とすると: if; suppose
にあたって: when; at the time of
からには: since; now that
のだったら: if it is...


そういう: that kind of
そんなに: so much


~きる: "verb masu form + きる" means to finish doing something completely.
~始める: "verb masu form + 始める" means to start doing something.
~てばかり: means always doing something.
~ようにする: means to try to do something.


ことはありません: "ことはない" means there is no need to do something.
~ませんように: "ないように" means I hope you don't...
~なくてもいい: means it's okay not to...
降ら ないでしようか: I hope it doesn't rain


"次第で" is directly attached to a noun and indicates a key decision factor.
Both "悔しいはずの" and "明るい" should be followed by a noun.
is followed by a noun.
Adjectives are followed by a noun.


  1. 増えたとします: let's say it increased
  1. 増えたためです: because it has increased
  2. 増えてしまいます: it will increase (with a sense of regret or remorse)
  3. 増えているそうです: I heard it is increasing

とします: This is an expression that indicates a hypothetical condition or assumption, meaning "let's assume..." or "suppose...".
ため: This is a conjunction that indicates a reason or cause and is usually used to explain the reason.
しまいます: This is an auxiliary verb that indicates completion or regret. It is often used to express a result that one does not want to happen has already happened or is about to happen, with a sense of helplessness or regret.
そうです: This is an expression that indicates hearsay or rumor, meaning "I heard that".

それに: Moreover

~ところです: (However) it is about to...
~一方です: continuously, increasingly...
~というわけです: that is to say...
~ことがあります: occasionally...

"あんな" is mostly used in the context of memories or low situations, and using "" means there are other reasons besides this one, which is not mentioned in the text.
"そのような" generally refers to the content that has appeared in the text.

納得させられました: (spontaneously) understood, agreed
納得したのでしょう: you should have understood
納得させて ほしかった です: I wanted (someone) to make (someone) understand
納得して もらえ ました: I was able to make (someone) understand
もらえ,もらう emphasizes the action object

〜とすれば: if
ては いけ ない: must not

会議の資料をこの机の上に置いた はず なのに
はず: probably

聞か なかった ことにしてくれない
: Please pretend you didn't hear it.

もう少しで: almost...

頑張った 甲斐 あった ね: Your efforts paid off.

  1. ことになる: to result in; to explain; to stipulate
  1. とのことだ: a typical grammar for expressing messages. "He said he wanted you to contact him."
  2. ようにして ください: please try to do something
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